International Symposium on Flower Bulbs and Herbaceous Perennials


Brief Information about Turkish Flora, Floriculture and Antalya

Turkish flora is one of the richest ones in the world with over 10000 species of vascular plants and 34% of endemism. The exact number of the species is still not known and nearly 60 new species are added to the flora every year. High proportion of endemics in combination with a good degree of climatic and edaphic variety seems to be the most important reasons for high plant biodiversity in the country. On the other hand, geographical location is another key point for the richness since there phytogeographical regions namely Mediterranean, Euro-Siberian and Irano-Turanian overlap here in Turkey. Striking topographical variations and having various numbers of microclimates lead the floral richness as well. Geophytes have a big share in the flora with about 1000 species of which some of them are quite important for horticultural uses. Among the Turkish flora, Mediterranean region has a special place in the flora because of its unique geographical characteristics. Within 30-40 km three or four different ecosystems can be seen at the same time of a year in Antalya Province, where altitudes range from sea level to over 3000 m in such a short distance.

Greenhouse cut flower production of the country is mostly centered in Antalya. Spray carnation is a leading species followed by gerbera, gladiolus and roses. All the greenhouse cut flower production excluding cut-roses in the province is exported to Western Europe. Sustainable snowdrop production on Western Taurus Mountains is in a considerable amount. Tulip is the most common flower grown in open fields in Istanbul and Konya provinces. Over 10 million tulip bulbs are annually planted in Istanbul alone for spring exhibitions and other purposes. In recent years all the tulip bulbs are produced by contracted growers especially in Istanbul in contrast to previous years’ plantations.

Horticultural background of flowers goes back to Ottoman Empire, which had a glorious period in between 1718- 1730 called “The Tulip Era”. It is well known that tulips were introduced to Holland from Turkey in early 1700’s. Tulip and carnations are typical symbols with mythical appeal of Turkish arts which have been commonly used in clothing, tiles, ceramics so on for centuries. Therefore, Tulip Era was a symbol of arts culture and architecture in Turkey. Flower bulb export from wild is still in affect although there have been quota system on them according to CITES criteria beside strict controls.

Flowers have also been frequently used in Turkish literature such as in novels, articles and poems. A great Turkish poet Aşık Veysel (1894-1973), who lost his sense of sight due to smallpox in his early childhood, used flowers as means of expression for happiness and sorrow in his poets as given below:

Crocus says I am hazel,
Trouble to valiant’s,
The most  splendid of all.
Is there a better flower than I am?

T ulip cries, O God!
Why do I have a curved neck?
I am, henceforth, apart from the beloved.
Is there a better flower than I am?

Hyacinth says my neck is long,
With ornamented leaves in rows,
String me on white throat,
Is there a better flower than I am?

Antalya is concerned as a capital city of tourism and horticulture in Turkey. More than 50% of all the greenhouses in whole Turkey is located in Antalya. The city of Antalya is highly regarded as one of the most important cradles of civilization in history, and therefore, a good number of antique cities (e.g. Arykanda, Perge, Side,Termessos), the ancient parliament building in Patara, Myra (birth place of Saint Clause), Aspendos Amphitheater, castles, gates, oil and water cannals, old harbours and historical walls mainly from Roman Empire and also some from Seljuk Empire are located in Antalya province and almost all of them are well preserved.

The beaches in Antalya are quite clean and all of them have blue flags. Visitors to Antalya in late March to early April can experience 4 S’s (sand, sea, snow and sun) and can enjoy all of them on the same day. Antalya is also a very unique province in terms of well reserved national parks, rafting, tracking, mysterious caves, picturesque waterfalls and wild life.

All the participants in the XI. International Symposium on Flower Bulbs and Herbaceous Perennials will surely enjoy Antalya and the surrounding. A number of short tours will be organized for the participants and accompanying persons. A long trip to Taurus Mountains, where a good number of geophytes are in flower is also scheduled.

Local organization committee and Bilkon Tourism Firm have previous experiences for organizing national and international symposiums.

It will be our honour to host you in the symposium in Antalya.


Programlar ve konuları

Genetik kaynaklar ve üreme

Genetik ve biyoteknoloji

Yetiştirme ve çiçekli fizyolojisi

Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve moleküler sistematik

Koruma ve sürdürülebilirlik

Hasat sonrası fizyolojisi ve taşıma

Peyzaj ve diğer süs amaçlı kullanılması

Ekolojik kavramlar

Bitki koruma

Tarihsel geçmişleri



Call for Abstract(s)

The organizing committee invites researchers, growers and traders submit presentations and posters:

Submission of posters and oral communications : October 20, 2011 – December 20, 2011
Notification of acceptance by the scientific committee  : January 31, 2012
Deadline for submitting the full texts  : April 30, 2012 

The presentations will be published in Acta Horticulturae.

Please send your abstracts to [email protected]